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Reformer Optimization and Ethanol Uplift Considerations

The need for reformers to support low octane pools has diminished ever since the EPA introduced the requirement of ethanol in gasoline. The greater ethanol content has increased the octane pool dramatically, as ethanol typically has an octane number of ~110. This has caused refineries to re-evaluate the need to run their reformers at maximum… read more →




An Expensive Barrel of Water

Extracting sediment and water (S&W) from crude and deducting the percentage of S&W from the total crude purchase is a normal procedure at most refineries. Having the refinery’s laboratory test for S&W is also a common practice at most refineries. What is not common is having the right procedures, tools, and behaviors to eliminate any… read more →




The Case for Customer Diversification for Canadian Crude

It is widely known that Canada has an almost exclusive partnership with the United States in terms of crude sales.  But what does this mean exactly for Canada in their negotiating power for crude pricing?  Not much. Historically, Canada has priced their bitumen against West Texas Intermediate (WTI) prices due to necessity and customer standards. … read more →




The Cost of Oil & Gas Measurement Inaccuracy

If you were to ask the C-suite executives of any major oil & gas corporation what the implications are of measurement inaccuracy throughout the value chain, you are likely to hear some variation on the risk to the P&L. While any oil & gas executive worth his or her salt will keep a keen eye… read more →




Considering Refinery Giveaways

Refineries focus on maximizing per-barrel profit margins by changing crude slates and unit operations to maximize the market value of finished products. However, emphasizing these major strategic priorities understates the impact of unit operations and margin incentives as well as potential areas of quality giveaway. Quality giveaway can be defined as any time a refinery… read more →




Crude Inventory Classifications

Capital can take many forms in a refinery.  One type of capital outlay sometimes overlooked in a casual consideration is the total stock of hydrocarbons stored in tanks, unit fills, line fills, rolling stock (rail storage), and so on.  Larger sized refineries can have anywhere from five to ten million or more barrels on hand… read more →




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